On the nonlinear viscosity of the orthotropic bulk rheology


We compare different ways the bulk flow nonlinearity of glacier ice can be captured in an orthotropic rheology. Specifically, we compare the unapproximated orthotropic rheology, derived from plastic potential theory, to existing approximations that assume either the nonlinear viscosity or fluidity is identical to that of Glen’s isotropic flow law. We find, overall, a reasonable agreement between the three orthotropic rheologies, and with existing Dye 3 ice-core deformation tests, although assuming Glen’s viscosity provides the best approximation to the unapproximated rheology. Our results therefore suggest that previous studies based on either approximation to the orthotropic rheology are on relatively safe ground in the sense that both approximations generally agree with the unapproximated rheology and experimental data. Finally, we provide the forward and inverse analytical forms of all three rheologies for use in future numerical ice-flow modelling.

Jounal of Glaciology
David A. Lilien
David A. Lilien
Assistant Professor (starting 2024)